Counter Urbanisation

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With reference to a specific example describe and explain the causes and effects of counter urbanization in an MEDC.

Counter-urbanisation is taking place in the UK, from London, the capital and most populated city in the UK, to Tiptree, a village along the A12 between London and Colchester.

One of the main reasons for leaving London is that the cost of living is very high. Demand for homes in the capital where there is little room for expansion and lots of businesses means that there is a huge amount of competition for housing nearby people’s workplaces for example. The huge demand means that prices rise and many people can’t afford it. Whereas in Tiptree there is not a lot of competition for houses as there is a more sparse population. House prices here are a lot cheaper than in London, and you get larger accommodation for your money.

As a crowded city, London has a fairly polluted environment, with poorer air quality, lots of litter and a lot of noise from many things such as roads. Whereas in Tiptree, the environment is more welcoming, with clean air, only small amounts of litter, and lots of wide, open spaces.

The amount of immigration to the London area has seen much over crowding in schools in the city, but in the smaller village of Tiptree there is no overcrowding so schools can cope with the amount of pupils and their learning doesn’t suffer.

Transport links into and out of the city of London are very overcrowded and therefore there is a lot of congestion, and many people are often late for work, or late getting home. Tiptree does not have this problem as it is a smaller village and traffic can quickly flow easily through so there is not any lateness.

Due to all these reasons, counter-urbanisation is taking place. The richer population of London who can afford to move do so from the city to local villages like Tiptree. Yet while having a more positive impact on London, it negatively affects Tiptree.

This is because as more and more people move out of parts of London, there becomes less road congestion as there are fewer people with fewer cars, and local school and hospitals may become less crowded as there are fewer people li8ving and needing those services in the area.

On the overhand, in Tiptree, housing prices rise as there becomes a greater demand from all those leaving London. First time buyers then struggle to buy their first property as prices become too much for them to afford.

The local populations are swamped with newcomers who are often disliked as they live but don’t work in the village and are seen as outsiders to the community of Tiptree. Also, there becomes congestion at peak times within the village as people travel to London for work.

The main school in Tiptree, Thurstable School, had to be extended to cope with the increase in the number of 11-18 year olds in the area.

As more and more people move to Tiptree, there becomes a loss of open green spaces as extra amenities such as golf courses, shops, gyms pubs and new roads open due to the high increase in the population. This costs a fair amount of money, and the beautiful countryside is slowly destroyed by excess buildings.

Urbanisation in an LEDC – Rio de Janeiro

With reference to an example of an LEDC you have studied, explain why urbanisation is occurring and describe the effects upon the urban area.

Rio de Janeiro is a fast growing Mega-City, located around the natural harbour of Guanabara Bay, in south-east Brazil. It replaced Brasilia as the capital, and Sao Paulo as the largest city as well as centre of industry and commerce. The population of it’s urban area is around 12 million people. It is a city with two sides, that of the famous beaches of Copacabana and Impanema surrounded by luxury housing, and the problems of rapid urban growth. 

The urbanisation of the area of Rio has been mainly caused by the poor living conditions of many Brazilians, who live in the Catinga region of East Brazil. Those who live there face harsh conditions, where there is often drought on the land, with very little annual rainfall, and little vegetation. Many harvests fail, and when this happens they have to live on whatever scraps they have, sometimes only one small meal a day. With a poor, or even no water supply, illness and death is common, and the area has a very high infant mortality rate. The sad truth is they cannot afford doctors or medication, as they have such a poor wage, and many living along one of the rivers were forced to move and lost what little they had because a major company wanted to build a dam.

Many of these people choose to seek a better quality of life, and choose Rio. This is because they may have heard about it on the radio, and the fact that it is a big city, with better conditions, the opportunity of better wages, water supplies and amenities is very attractive.  

Now, due to a continual influx of people looking for a better way of life, Rio has some major issues to content with. One of the biggest problems the city faces is that of housing.  There are around ½ a million homeless street dwellers, with a million living in favelas, and another million people living in poor quality housing from the local authorities. There are over 600 favelas in and around Rio, the largest of which are Rocina and Morro de Alemao, both containing over 100,000 people. The homes are constructed with anything available including wood, corrugated iron and broken bricks or tiles, so are very poor in some cases in terms of staying at the right temperature or being completely waterproof if not enough material is available. They are built on hillside considered too steep for normal housing, as it is too dangerous to build there according to local building authorities. Homes built near the bottom, although a better site, can sometimes receive sewage running down the hillside in open drains. People near the hilltops however, must bring all their supplies they need from the bottom, including buckets of water several times a day.  Flash floods or landslides after heavy rainfall can easily cause less well built homes to be carried away, and home falling down from the top can damage or destroy many homes along the way down to the bottom, and 200 people died because of this in 1988.

Although several attempts have been made to clear the favelas, they are still there, as evicted residents, who did not receive new replacement housing (which was often little better than the original shacks), simply returned and rebuilt their homes. The local authority now accepts the presence of favelas and is working with resident association to improve the living conditions there.

Another problem Rio now faces is that of crime. Despite claims by residents that crime amongst the favelas has decreased, and that community spirit is increasing, non-residents perceive the area as somewhere to associate with organised crime, violence and drug trafficking. Rio de Janeiro has a worldwide notoriety for its use of drugs, in particular cocaine, and so well of residents are moving out of the City to places such as Barra da Tijuca, which they see as safer environments for their families.  The problem is seen as so bad, that tourists to Rio’s beaches, such as Copacabana, are warned not to take any valuables with them, and are advised not to wear jewellery or watches.

Traffic has also now become a major issue, as the geographical location of Rio means that the city is hemmed in between the mountains and the South Atlantic Ocean. This means that traffic is channelled down a limited number of routes, so for much of the day there is severe congestion, pollution and noise even through the night.

The final big problem is pollution. Due to the size of the city, huge amounts waste and rubbish is produced. In favelas this is unlikely to be collected, and its presence, together with possibly polluted water supplies and sewage in open drain causes serious health hazards. An example of this was the outbreak of Cholera in 1992. As well as this, because of the amount of businesses and homes, there is an industrial haze, intensified by traffic fumes, often hanging over much of Guanabara Bay. Along the coast the beaches and sea are also polluted.

Urbanisation is taking place in Rio de Janeiro because of poor living conditions in other parts of Brazil, making the residents decide to move to a big city in the hope of a better standard of living, creating many problems such as housing, traffic crime and pollution for the city itself.