With the January exams looming I thought I’d share my revision notes for the geography unit on tourism 🙂

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The Transport of Carbon Dioxide

  • Respired carbon dioxide has to be removed:
    • 5% Dissolves as a gas in the plasma
    • 10% Combines with Haemoglobin (Carbaminohaemoglobin)
    • 85% Dissolved in the form of hydrogen carbonate ions HCO3
  • Carbonic acid is produced using the enzyme carbonic anhydrase:
    • CO2 + H2O  →  H2CO3
  • Carbonic acid in solution produces hydrogen ions and hydrogen carbonate ions:
    • H2CO3 → HCO3 + H+
  • Chloride shift:
    • The negatively charged hydrogen carbonate ions diffuse out of the red blood cells. To balance the charge, Cl ions move in.
  • Hydrogen ions cause the red blood cell to become acidic. To control this, haemoglobin takes up the hydrogen ions to form haemoglobinic acid. The haemoglobin acts as a buffer.
  • The Bohr Effect:
    • The hydrogen ions compete for the space on the haemoglobin originally taken up by oxygen.
    • The hydrogen ions displace the oxygen making the oxyhaemoglobin dissociate faster.
    • More CO2 → more H+ ions → more freely O2 dissociates from oxyhaemoglobin.

Study Leave – Necessary Or Simply A Holiday?

During our PSHE lesson this week, we had our termly ‘fireside chat’ with the head of year 12, where we are supposed to discuss any issues or concerns we’ve had recently. The only subject brought up, which was hotly debated over the course of the next hour, was the issue of study leave in January. Unsurprisingly, I, along with an overwhelming majority of students at my school (I’d say all but I haven’t asked everyone) think we should be allowed just over 2 weeks off during this exam period. Last year I had 3 maths exams in January and was allowed the ½ day before the exam off (so if it was a morning exam I’d get to go home at lunch the previous day, and if it was an afternoon exam I would have that morning off) which was okay in the end because the exams were relatively easy and all our maths lessons in that period were dedicated to revision. So surely we don’t need January study leave, you might ask. But that is where you may be mistaken, and here is my list of reasons why:

  • These exams really count: Those of us who are looking at gaining an A* at A-level need to achieve an average of 90% across the A2 modules – this requires lots of focus and many hours of revision. At AS, although it is a very nice safety net to achieve a solid A-grade, the school records show that many students who obtain B-grades go on to get A’s or even A*’s at A2. So it just goes to show how important these exams are.
  • I’m not going to be focused on lessons if I’ve got an exam coming up so forcing us to come into school and trying to make us do work would be futile. From my experience of having a German oral exam in the afternoon, and not being permitted even an hour’s study leave, I know that is impossible to focus in class because all you’re worried about is the exam, and I did very little work that morning because I was too busy going over my notes.
  • The vast majority of us can afford to miss 2 weeks of school: It’s not even half-term yet, but already in all my subjects we’re moving on to the content that will appear in our summer exams, and we will have covered around half of it before the Christmas holidays. If you exclude the study leave we want, that still leaves around 10 weeks for the second half of the content, which should be enough if the lessons are planned well and everyone does the work they’re set. My form tutor, who is a music teacher, made the point that in some subjects, such as music, art and tech, there is also coursework to be done, to which we made the point that those students should be given x number of hours they have to be in school during those two weeks to do that work, leaving them with the option of when they wish to come in. Apparently this would be unfair, but we are constantly being told when we make complaints about other things that life is unfair, so if it means that the rest of us can have the revision time we deserve, especially as there are no music exams in January and the class size to my knowledge is around 5, I don’t see the problem.
  • Would we honestly be expected to do homework over revision? My form tutor assured me that teachers would be lenient in terms of work set and not starting new topics when people were having their ½ day study leave, but I’m pretty sure that in some subjects, such as languages, where there are no January exams, they would still expect us to write essays or complete work for the next day.
  • Why give us study leave in the summer of year 12 if we don’t need it? When I made this point I was told that teachers are constantly debating at school whether study leave in year 12 is actually worthwhile, but as we were given it then, surely that means we should be given it now?
  • If there is no study leave then student won’t get their ½ day study leave for resits: I couldn’t believe my ears when I heard that – would the school really potentially jeopardise its league table position for the sake of the principle that those students should have put more effort in and done better first time round? Luckily, I don’t have to do any resits, however some of my friends have as many as 5 resits in January alone. I think this rule is unfair, particularly for the mathematicians resitting C3 or C4 – the 2 exams that determine if you get an A or A*, as everyone has one or two bad exam at some point, and these exams I have mentioned are not AS but A2 so really do matter – giving them time to revise could be the difference between a handful of A*’s achieved by some year 12’s or the majority of accelerated maths students achieving the A* which they deserve.
  • What can the teachers do if only a small portion of the class is in and the rest are on their half day off? This would also mean students whose subjects have exams in January would be effectively punished as they would have to spend a lot of time catching up on lessons they’ve missed. Teachers say that in previous years no-one has done the work they’ve set for the study leave period, but I know I, along with many others would, as well as using the time to make revision notes for the summer, saving us time in the Easter holidays.

The compromise that my form came up with was that all year 13 students get study leave in the sense that there are no official timetabled lessons, but still attend school and go to the classrooms they would normally be in so they can revise in their own way, and teachers can see that we’re doing work. The music students could do their coursework, and the teachers would be able to answer any queries before the exam. Unfortunately, it was pointed out that it would be rather impractical, especially as there are not enough computers to go around, but I still think it would be a better alternative to lessons.

So rant over, we now have to wait until after ½ term when the situation will be clarified to us in assembly. Fingers crossed they listen to us.