Gentechnik – Fluch oder Segen?

Hier gibt es meinen Aufsatz über Gentechnik. Die Sätze in kursiver Schrift sind eine andere Möglichkeit, der vorangegangenen Satz zu schreiben.

Gentechnik ist etwas, was in den letzten Jahren immer wichtiger geworden ist. Es handelt sich bei Gentechnik um ein immer wichtigeres Thema in der heutigen Gesellschaft. Weil es so viele Arten der Gentechnik gibt, werde ich gern im Laufe dieses Aufsatzes festellen, ob es ein Segen aus dem medizinischen Standpunkt ist. Laut einer Studie ist 30% der deutsche Bevölkerung gegen Gentechnik, aber spricht diese Meinung sicht nicht aus für der spezifischen Krankenheit. Zum Beispiel ist nur 8% gegen ihre Benutzung, um Mukoviszidose zu heilen, jedoch ist sich 34% einig über den Gebrauch von Gentechnologien, zur Heilung von Gedächtnisprobleme.

Die Kirchen und Poilitiker denken, dass die Zukunft der Medizin in adulten Stammzellen liegt. Adulte Stammzellen werden als der Zukunft der Medizin gefeiert. Erst werden die Stammzellen aus dem Körper isolieren, dann sind sie im Labor vermehrt, und letztlich warden sie zurück in den Körper eingepflanzt. Diese Therapie halt man für sehr vorteilhaft, da es nicht nur sicher ist, was Erfahrungen von der Transplantation von Knockenmark uns gezeigt haben, sodern auch denn die Zellen werden nicht vom Immunsystem abgestoßen. Das hat zur Folge, dass die Patienten keine lebenslange Medikamenten brauchen. Es handelt sich bei adulte Stammzellen um eine Alternative zu lebenslangen Medikamenten, da die Zellen nicht vom Immunsystem abgestoßen werden. Leider existiert es Nachteile dieser Therapie. Man kann nur adulte Stammzellen aus Knochenmark, Blut oder Haut gewinnen, und sie sind nicht für alle Körpergewebe geeignet, weil es mit alten Zellen wenige Funktionen und eine größere Krebs-Gefahr herrscht.

Jedoch sind adulte Stammzellen nicht das einzige Heilmittel gegen Erbkrankheiten, indem man auch embryonale Stammzellen benutzen könnte. Es stellt sich heraus, dass es eine Alternative zu den adulten Stammzellen existiert, und das sind embryonale Stammzellen. Die einzigen Unterschiede sind, dass eine Blastozyste zestört werden muss, um die Stammzellen zu gewinnen, und auch, dass die Stammzelllen unter bestimmten Bedingungen theoretisch jede Art von Zelle schaffen könnte. Laut Kritiker wird es behauptet, dass es ein ethisches Verbrechen wäre, aber es kommt darauf an, ob man denkt, dass Leben bei der Geburt oder bei Zeugung beginnt. Wenn man denkt, dass Leben nur bei der Geburt beginnt, sollte es kein moralisches Dilemma sein, weil es nicht um die Zerstörung von menschlichen Leben geht. Die Benutzung den embryonalen Stammzellen ist ein moralisch es Dilemma geworden, weil einige Leute denken, dass einen Embryo einem menschlichen Leben gleichsteht. Dagegen sind die Zellen im Körper kaum zu kontrollieren, und deswegen gibt es ein Risiko, dass sie eine bestimmte Form von Krebs bilden werden, was als einen Teratom bekannt ist.

Im Gegensatz zu Stammzellen ist die einzige andere Möglichkeit Rettungskinder. Rettungskinder sind Kinder, die mit vorbestimmten Genen geboren sind, sodass sie ein Organ oder Blut für ein alteres Geschwester spenden können. Rettungskinder sind mit vorbestimmten Genen geborenen Kinder, die genetisch mit einem alteren Geschwister ähneln. Mehrer Romane wie ,,Beim Leben meiner Schwester’’ haben diesen Streitpunkt behandelt, und soweit ich es beurteilen kann, wird das Rettungskind nie auf die gleiche Weise als das kranke Kind geliebt, denn die Hauptbeschäftigung den Eltern immer der Gesundheit und dem Glück des ersten Kind sein wird. Für Eltern mit ein Retungskind handelt es sich immer bei die Gesundheit und das Glück des kranken Kindes um die Priorität. Die Hauptfrage ist, ob das Rettungskind eine Wahl haben sollte, da einem im Allgemeinen erlaubt warden sollte, seinen eigenen Körper zu kontrollieren. Aber andereseits ist es vorteilhaft für das Gesundheitssystem, denn es die kostengünstigste der drei Optionen ist, da eine einmalige Operation im Vergleich zu lebenslang Behandlungen relativ billig ist.

Kurz gesagt ist Gentechnik im Groβen und Ganzen etwas Positives, aber eine Unkenntnis darüber verhindert die Entwicklung neuer Technogien, indem 31% von Leuten Angst vor Gentechnik haben, weil sie denken, dass man wirklich eine ganzen Menschen im Labor schaffen kann, obleich die anderen 69% verstehen, dass das nicht im Moment möglich ist. Allerdings glaube ich, dass Menschen der Recht zu wählen haben sollten, Gentechnik aus religiösen oder moralischen Grunden nicht zu benutzen. Obwohl ich nur über die medizinische Seite dieser Debatte gesprochen habe, gibt es auch ähnliche Debatten über andere gentechnische Sachen wie gentechnisches Essen. Die Debatte über die Entwicklung der Gentechnik geht nicht nur um  ihre Nutzung in der Medizin, sondern auch anderen Themen wie gentechnisches Essen ein.

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Gothic Stories

The centuries before the Victorian period, citizens of the UK lead a life mainly dominated by Christianity. Yet a huge advancement in scientific and astronomical knowledge, including Darwinism, as well as industrialisation lead to a more “enlightened education”, meaning people in society began to reject the notion of God. From this, those of the Victorian era believed there was nothing that could not be explained in a logical way. The fictional character of Sherlock Homes was born from this time and embodied the thought that seemingly impossible situations can be solved by applying logic and reason. However, this shift in the perception of the world did not mean that generation old superstitions were no longer relevant. No electricity meant homes were lit by candle during the night, distorting the shape of ordinary items into more sinister forms. Confusion brought about from this undermined the rational views, playing on people’s fear of the unknown, ere irrational fears developed from what couldn’t be seen rather than what could.

The tell tale heart by Edgar Allen Poe, The monkey’s Paw by W.W Jacobs and The red room by H.G wells are three examples of the gothic ghost story genre, that adhere to certain conventions to create the atmosphere and tension in the story.

The most prominent of these conventions is atmosphere and weather, where the stereotypical parts of the story such as being set in a castle, with an inexplicable event occurring are found.

In the Red Room the story begins with a description of the use of candles in the room to see, and the presence of a burning fire. Both of these suggest the story is set at night, giving the atmosphere a degree of uncertainty as night is the time of day when the most scary and eerie events take place. The fire also suggests that the characters are safe by this one fire as it acts as a shelter, but out of the reach of its warmth and light is the fearfulness of the unknown. The fact that 3 of the characters are huddled close together by this fire when the narrator enters the room also hints that they have been frightened by some unknown entity, and alerts the reader that something is not correct within the home. The narrator writes “the three of them made me uncomfortable”, suggesting a tense and awkward atmosphere between the characters, as the narrator isn’t certain of what he should expect from those before him. When walking through the passageways to the Red room, the writer comments that his “candle flared and made the shadows cower and quiver”, and that the shadows falling on white panelling gave “th impression of someone crouching to waylay” him. Both of these quotes suggests the writer is not alone in the passage and that somebody else is present. This creates a tense atmosphere as the reader does not know for sure whether another person is present, and that f they are, whether they intent to do the writer harm.

The monkey’s paw also uses the atmosphere and weather well to create the eerie mood. Pathetic fallacy, where the weather is personified to hint at later events in the story, is used as “the night was wet and cold”, indicating bad and dismal weather, so as a reflection something bad will occur later on in the story. A turning point in the story is where the “gate banged” and “heavy footsteps” could be heard. From this the reader knows something is approaching, and the story is about to change, as heavy footsteps and loud noises do not complement a warm and quiet family atmosphere. The sergeant major says one of his lines “offhandedly”, making him seem uncomfortable about talking about the paw, so the reader wonders what bad things could possible be associated with just an ordinary little paw.

During the Tell tale heart, the room is said to be “as black as pitch with the thick darkness” and that only “a single thin ray” of light “fell upon the vulture eye”. The darkness plays on the fear of the unknown, as in the dark your senses are limits as you can’t see what lies directly ahead of you. The light shining down on that one specific point in the room highlights the hideousness of the eye, which is a terrifying image.

Another main convention of the gothic genre is the style in which it is written. The style can convey deliberate traits about a character you would not otherwise pick up on, as well as drum into your mind specific haunting phrases that create a darker image in your mind.

“It increased my fury as the beating of a drum stimulates the soldier into courage” is a powerful simile that stands out it the Tell Tale heart. It creates tension by suggesting the character is about to burst out in a fit of rage and violence, as a soldier does when called into battle. The narrator is adamant that “there was nothing to wash out – no stain of any kind – no blood spot whatsoever”. This uses the power of three to help maintain the unusual image in the reader’s mind, as after a killing you expect a lot of blood. He goes on to say that he “had been too wary for that”, suggesting he is highly intelligent and calculated, yet also mad as he seems to have acquired an obsession over not being caught out, portraying the stereotypical and frightening type of character who goes crazy with power and knowledge. His delicate frame of mind is also shown in his language used. “This I thought and this I think” is a strange way of phrasing the sentence, again indicating the man is infact mad, no matter how many times he denies it.

In the Red Room, particular words including “Red”, “blood”, “darkness” and “shadow” are heavily repeated throughout the story to create tension, as darkness and shadows cause confusion so are therefore scary, and all but the latter are associated with death. The narrator frequently asks himself questions such as “Did I do that myself in a flash of absent-mindedness” and “what’s up” which both make him appear to be worried and strange as he seems to be incoherent and not totally aware of his surroundings. Furthermore, from this the reader will question if he does not know himself what is happening or who did these things, who or what did, creating more tension as the reader anticipates the answer. While making his way towards the red room he “was about to advance and stopped abruptly”. The punctuation together with the word abruptly makes you pause along with the story, making you question what will happen next.

When the sergeant in the monkey’s paw is asked whether he has had his free wishes he replied “I have…quietly and his blotchy face whitened”, making the reader wonder what his wishes were and what bad things the monkey’s paw did to him to make him appear scared with a pale face rather than smile when he thinks about the consequences. The sergeant also says that “the first man had his three wishes….the third was for death” builds more tension as the reader wonders how his first two wishes, which were likely to be simple wishes for personal gain such as more money for example, could ultimately lead to a situation so bad that the best option left is to wish for your own life to be taken, because wishes are magical things that normally give happiness to those granted them.

The final convention placed into these gothic stories is that of supernatural elements. These add the most mystery and fear as they are hard, if not impossible to explain logically.

In the monkey’s paw, the paw is often referred to as a “talisman”, which suggests the use of magic. It is also mysterious, and the reader is confused as to why it is not simply called the monkey’s paw. “Pulsating shadows” are mentioned which creates the image of the shadows being alive and moving independently, rather than the object that created them being moved, which is impossible. The house itself is “steeped in shadow and silence”, typifying the stereotypical haunted graveyard, where ghosts are believed to roam, suggesting the presence of many supernatural creatures in and around the house. At the end of the story, Mr White says “For God’s sake, don’t let it in”. Referring to the thing outside the reader believes to be the couple’s dead son as an “it” rather than “he” is frightening as it suggests he s so deformed that he is no longer recognisable as human, and deformed creatures are often associated with violence and danger, as they are unknown, instilling fear into the reader’s minds for the couple.

The red room mentions “an invisible hand”. The narrator is speaking of something that cannot be seen, and also something that is impossible as a hand can be seen, adding to the fear and tension of the Victorian reader because they would have been easily frightened by unexplainable and mysterious objects such as invisible hands. One man tells the narrator that “if you go to the red room tonight, you go alone”. The woman cuts in ion the middle saying “this night of all nights”. This gives the impression that something terrifying has previously occurred in the room, and all three have witnessed it explaining their determination to stay as far away from the room as possible. Also, this implies it is not safe to proceed to the room, so tension is create as it suggests the narrator may come to harm by going there, especially on that day, as the woman repeats “this night of all nights” hinting that the narrators visit will generate far worse consequences than normal.

All three of these gothic stories adhere to the conventions of the period such as atmosphere and weather, style and the inclusion of supernatural entities to create tension, suspense, mystery and fear to create an interesting and gripping story.

Urbanisation in an LEDC – Rio de Janeiro

With reference to an example of an LEDC you have studied, explain why urbanisation is occurring and describe the effects upon the urban area.

Rio de Janeiro is a fast growing Mega-City, located around the natural harbour of Guanabara Bay, in south-east Brazil. It replaced Brasilia as the capital, and Sao Paulo as the largest city as well as centre of industry and commerce. The population of it’s urban area is around 12 million people. It is a city with two sides, that of the famous beaches of Copacabana and Impanema surrounded by luxury housing, and the problems of rapid urban growth. 

The urbanisation of the area of Rio has been mainly caused by the poor living conditions of many Brazilians, who live in the Catinga region of East Brazil. Those who live there face harsh conditions, where there is often drought on the land, with very little annual rainfall, and little vegetation. Many harvests fail, and when this happens they have to live on whatever scraps they have, sometimes only one small meal a day. With a poor, or even no water supply, illness and death is common, and the area has a very high infant mortality rate. The sad truth is they cannot afford doctors or medication, as they have such a poor wage, and many living along one of the rivers were forced to move and lost what little they had because a major company wanted to build a dam.

Many of these people choose to seek a better quality of life, and choose Rio. This is because they may have heard about it on the radio, and the fact that it is a big city, with better conditions, the opportunity of better wages, water supplies and amenities is very attractive.  

Now, due to a continual influx of people looking for a better way of life, Rio has some major issues to content with. One of the biggest problems the city faces is that of housing.  There are around ½ a million homeless street dwellers, with a million living in favelas, and another million people living in poor quality housing from the local authorities. There are over 600 favelas in and around Rio, the largest of which are Rocina and Morro de Alemao, both containing over 100,000 people. The homes are constructed with anything available including wood, corrugated iron and broken bricks or tiles, so are very poor in some cases in terms of staying at the right temperature or being completely waterproof if not enough material is available. They are built on hillside considered too steep for normal housing, as it is too dangerous to build there according to local building authorities. Homes built near the bottom, although a better site, can sometimes receive sewage running down the hillside in open drains. People near the hilltops however, must bring all their supplies they need from the bottom, including buckets of water several times a day.  Flash floods or landslides after heavy rainfall can easily cause less well built homes to be carried away, and home falling down from the top can damage or destroy many homes along the way down to the bottom, and 200 people died because of this in 1988.

Although several attempts have been made to clear the favelas, they are still there, as evicted residents, who did not receive new replacement housing (which was often little better than the original shacks), simply returned and rebuilt their homes. The local authority now accepts the presence of favelas and is working with resident association to improve the living conditions there.

Another problem Rio now faces is that of crime. Despite claims by residents that crime amongst the favelas has decreased, and that community spirit is increasing, non-residents perceive the area as somewhere to associate with organised crime, violence and drug trafficking. Rio de Janeiro has a worldwide notoriety for its use of drugs, in particular cocaine, and so well of residents are moving out of the City to places such as Barra da Tijuca, which they see as safer environments for their families.  The problem is seen as so bad, that tourists to Rio’s beaches, such as Copacabana, are warned not to take any valuables with them, and are advised not to wear jewellery or watches.

Traffic has also now become a major issue, as the geographical location of Rio means that the city is hemmed in between the mountains and the South Atlantic Ocean. This means that traffic is channelled down a limited number of routes, so for much of the day there is severe congestion, pollution and noise even through the night.

The final big problem is pollution. Due to the size of the city, huge amounts waste and rubbish is produced. In favelas this is unlikely to be collected, and its presence, together with possibly polluted water supplies and sewage in open drain causes serious health hazards. An example of this was the outbreak of Cholera in 1992. As well as this, because of the amount of businesses and homes, there is an industrial haze, intensified by traffic fumes, often hanging over much of Guanabara Bay. Along the coast the beaches and sea are also polluted.

Urbanisation is taking place in Rio de Janeiro because of poor living conditions in other parts of Brazil, making the residents decide to move to a big city in the hope of a better standard of living, creating many problems such as housing, traffic crime and pollution for the city itself.

The Sixth Sense – Film Review

The sixth sense is like watching your reflection in a slowly flowing river on a cloudy day. You can instantly recognise the basic shapes of yourself and you surroundings, but a cool breeze ripples the water gently on the surface, until the once clear detail becomes blurred, concealing the real picture within. Yet right at the last minute the sun returns from its safe guard to reveal what was once hidden.

Do you know why you feel afraid when you’re alone? Do you know why it goes bitingly cold in the height of summer? Do you feel the presence of people who are no longer living? Cole Sear (Hayley Joel Osment) does. Seemingly a normal schoolchild, as the story unfolds, you see why he is not. He has a gift that allows him to see the recently deceased, who stayed in this world believing they are alive, as they had unfinished business.

Dr. Malcolm Crowe (Bruce Willis) at the start of the film is visited by an ex-patient, Vincent Gray. Vincent turns up at his house in just his underwear, traumatised by what he sees, as he, like Cole, could se dead people. Blaming Crowe for his disturbed childhood, and saying he failed him, Vincent shoots Crowe before turning the gun on himself to end his misery.

One year later we see Crowe, who seems fully recovered from the previous year’s ordeal, meet Cole and try to help him, as he believes this will make up for his past failings with Vincent. The plot then twists and turns, with Crowe’s obsession with the case grows while he becomes increasingly estranged from his wife Anna (Olivia Williams) who doesn’t even speak to him anymore. Meanwhile, Cole fears his supernatural gift, begging Crowe to, “Please make them leave”.

With a story so dramatic and mysterious that leaves you guessing to the very end, and compelling characters, it’s no wonder The Sixth Sense was nominated for 37 awards, 6 of them Oscars, and won 31 of them. What was particularly good about this cleverly-constructed piece is that the atmospherically music played at all the right times, and then stopped making you move even further onto the edge of your seat. The colour red was cleverly placed in every relevant scene signalling the presence of ghosts, or hinting that something more scary is about to happen. It’s hard to believe this a debut film, as the use of camera angles suggests a much more experienced director. M. Night Shyamalan uses his knowledge of the camera well to keep you from realising the shock ending, while giving very subtle hints you don’t notice in the first viewing of the film, that when put together reveal the key to the story.

The characters were captivating with great performances all round, especially from the likes of Toni Collette who made a tender performance as Cole’s single mother, making the story more believable and bringing a character to the screen everyone can relate to. It was nice to see Bruce Willis leave behind his at times brutal man of action façade behind to go into a softer role as a man with so many complicated issues to deal with, and Willis adapted to it very well. But the best performance by far was by Osment who carried the film, making a very moving portrayal of the young boy at the heart of the story.

On the downside however, the film takes a while to build up pace, but once it does it stops too suddenly with the last scenes, quickly putting end to all the tension painstakingly built up throughout the beginning, leaving you slightly unsatisfied. Also, the use of the colour red, although a good thing in concept, was for my tastes over-used and almost exploited, when a lesser, more subtle dosage of the colour would have been enough to use as a hint.

Yet these somewhat minor flaws can be forgiven as the basic mistakes of a director with little experience, and put together with all the positives the film brings, the bad is pushed into the shadows. The quality of the film is superb and I would strongly recommend to everyone who hasn’t seen it already to watch it – it’s definitely worth it. Although the film ends after barely two hours, the story and morals that the film provides will stick with you in your mind for a long time after.