MEDC Urban Development Problems

Case Study: Congestion and Traffic Management in Chelmsford

Causes:

  • There is fairly poor public transport so many prefer to use their own means of transport instead.
  • Chelmsford is a thoroughfare to get to other places such as Colchester as the A12 and A414 run through it, meaning there are more cars on the road.
  • There is an increase in car ownership as cars are becoming cheaper to buy second-hand.
  • Chelmsford is built on old road systems that only allow one lane each way with no room to expand as there are too many buildings, and so the roads cannot cope today’s volume of traffic.
  • Chelmsford is the county town of Essex and is a big town so many people are moving here in the hope of employment.
  • People are travelling further to reach work as they have car access instead of taking local jobs to them in walking/cycling distance so there are lots more cars.

Effects:

  • People may become consistently late to work as they struggle to get through the town to their work amidst all the traffic
  • It increases the amount of road-rage experienced by frustrated drivers stuck in long queues.  
  • There may be an increase in the amount of collisions/rashes as there are more cars on the road. Also, people who become fed up with being stuck in traffic jams may drive more dangerously such as performing
  • All the traffic on the roads means it becomes very difficult for local businesses to transport their goods or have other companies deliver goods to them.
  • There becomes tension between car owners and environmentalists as car owners want to drive but environmentalists are angered by this as it is damaging the environment. 
  • There also becomes tension between locals and commuters as the commuters are causing a great deal of the congestion, and the locals cannot get around their own town easily or have to wait for long periods of time to park their car in their driveway.
  • The total amount of money spent on petrol increases as more is used sitting in traffic, and local companies can exploit the high demand by increasing prices.
  • The fumes from all the cars cause vast amounts of air pollution. For example, these gases can cause illnesses and potentially cancer, especially in high risk groups such as the elderly or the asthmatic. Also a lot of carbon dioxide is produced, which is one of the gases contributing to global warming.

Solutions:

  • Some roads have become pedestrian orientated to keep cars away from high risk area e.g. in the town centre the high street isn’t used for any vehicles, and also they cannot make any pollution here.
  • Hybrid cars could be developed and promoted. These would cut down on the carbon emissions as well as other detrimental gases.   
  • Smaller cars and car sharing could be promotes which would cut down on emissions and the amount of congestion on the roads.
  • Park and ride/park and cycle schemes could be promoted cutting down on traffic and pollution in the main area of the town.
  • Congestion charges could be enforced around the town centre to discourage people from driving there, encouraging them to find alternative means of transport.
  • More bus lanes could be built to improve the flow of public transport. Or cycle lanes to encourage cycling and keep cyclists out of pedestrian’s and cars way.
  • More tax could be put on petrol and diesel to discourage drivers from using their cars all the time.
  • Buses could become free or a lot cheaper to encourage more people to use them on a regular basis.
  • Parking costs in the town could be increased to encourage people to use public transport, walk or cycle to wherever they need to go if possible.
  • Alternative means of transport need to be explained and promoted such as walking to school (walking bus)
  • Cycling should be promoted as it is very environmentally friendly and also has health benefits.
  • Traffic calming measures such as speed bumps, speed cameras and 20mph speed limits should be introduced to reduce accidents by cars. 

Urbanisation in an LEDC – Rio de Janeiro

With reference to an example of an LEDC you have studied, explain why urbanisation is occurring and describe the effects upon the urban area.

Rio de Janeiro is a fast growing Mega-City, located around the natural harbour of Guanabara Bay, in south-east Brazil. It replaced Brasilia as the capital, and Sao Paulo as the largest city as well as centre of industry and commerce. The population of it’s urban area is around 12 million people. It is a city with two sides, that of the famous beaches of Copacabana and Impanema surrounded by luxury housing, and the problems of rapid urban growth. 

The urbanisation of the area of Rio has been mainly caused by the poor living conditions of many Brazilians, who live in the Catinga region of East Brazil. Those who live there face harsh conditions, where there is often drought on the land, with very little annual rainfall, and little vegetation. Many harvests fail, and when this happens they have to live on whatever scraps they have, sometimes only one small meal a day. With a poor, or even no water supply, illness and death is common, and the area has a very high infant mortality rate. The sad truth is they cannot afford doctors or medication, as they have such a poor wage, and many living along one of the rivers were forced to move and lost what little they had because a major company wanted to build a dam.

Many of these people choose to seek a better quality of life, and choose Rio. This is because they may have heard about it on the radio, and the fact that it is a big city, with better conditions, the opportunity of better wages, water supplies and amenities is very attractive.  

Now, due to a continual influx of people looking for a better way of life, Rio has some major issues to content with. One of the biggest problems the city faces is that of housing.  There are around ½ a million homeless street dwellers, with a million living in favelas, and another million people living in poor quality housing from the local authorities. There are over 600 favelas in and around Rio, the largest of which are Rocina and Morro de Alemao, both containing over 100,000 people. The homes are constructed with anything available including wood, corrugated iron and broken bricks or tiles, so are very poor in some cases in terms of staying at the right temperature or being completely waterproof if not enough material is available. They are built on hillside considered too steep for normal housing, as it is too dangerous to build there according to local building authorities. Homes built near the bottom, although a better site, can sometimes receive sewage running down the hillside in open drains. People near the hilltops however, must bring all their supplies they need from the bottom, including buckets of water several times a day.  Flash floods or landslides after heavy rainfall can easily cause less well built homes to be carried away, and home falling down from the top can damage or destroy many homes along the way down to the bottom, and 200 people died because of this in 1988.

Although several attempts have been made to clear the favelas, they are still there, as evicted residents, who did not receive new replacement housing (which was often little better than the original shacks), simply returned and rebuilt their homes. The local authority now accepts the presence of favelas and is working with resident association to improve the living conditions there.

Another problem Rio now faces is that of crime. Despite claims by residents that crime amongst the favelas has decreased, and that community spirit is increasing, non-residents perceive the area as somewhere to associate with organised crime, violence and drug trafficking. Rio de Janeiro has a worldwide notoriety for its use of drugs, in particular cocaine, and so well of residents are moving out of the City to places such as Barra da Tijuca, which they see as safer environments for their families.  The problem is seen as so bad, that tourists to Rio’s beaches, such as Copacabana, are warned not to take any valuables with them, and are advised not to wear jewellery or watches.

Traffic has also now become a major issue, as the geographical location of Rio means that the city is hemmed in between the mountains and the South Atlantic Ocean. This means that traffic is channelled down a limited number of routes, so for much of the day there is severe congestion, pollution and noise even through the night.

The final big problem is pollution. Due to the size of the city, huge amounts waste and rubbish is produced. In favelas this is unlikely to be collected, and its presence, together with possibly polluted water supplies and sewage in open drain causes serious health hazards. An example of this was the outbreak of Cholera in 1992. As well as this, because of the amount of businesses and homes, there is an industrial haze, intensified by traffic fumes, often hanging over much of Guanabara Bay. Along the coast the beaches and sea are also polluted.

Urbanisation is taking place in Rio de Janeiro because of poor living conditions in other parts of Brazil, making the residents decide to move to a big city in the hope of a better standard of living, creating many problems such as housing, traffic crime and pollution for the city itself.