The Tropical Rainforest (Amazon Project Part 1)

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The Tropical rainforest is a forest found near the equator. The temperature only varies by a few degrees all year. It looks green all year round even though many of the trees are deciduous, because there is a constant temperature there are no seasons so the trees lose their leaves at different times of year. The rainforests hold more of the world’s species of plants and animals than any other biome. The Amazon has around 50% of the world’s species of plants and animals.

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The rainforest is mainly made up of well-designed and adapted trees. These millions of trees grow in four main layers. The top layer of trees is made up of very tall trees reaching heights of over 50 meters called Emergent. They have specially designed buttress roots so they do not fall over. The next layer is called the canopy, with trees growing to around 30 meters. This is where most of the animals live; flowers grow and the layer that gets the most light. The next layer is called the under canopy or under storey with trees growing to around 10meters. Here it is quite dark. The last layer is the shrub layer. Here it is very quiet and plants may only get sunlight for a few minutes of the day, so they have very dark green leaves and turn to face the sun. Some plants have adapted to grow on the taller trees and use their energy to survive. The animals have adapted to have bright and bold colours, being able to make a loud noise and eat diets that consist mainly of fruit as well as living in the canopy where there is more food and light. The nutrients cycle helps to keep the rainforest alive. Most of the trees are deciduous, but they all lose there leaves at different times of the year, so the forest floor is always covered in leaves all year round. Decomposers then eat these leaves. They then excrete and put nutrients back into the soil. The trees then suck up the nutrients so they can grow. Sometimes over plants will grow on the trees, and suck nutrients from their host tree. The tree then loses it leaves and the cycle starts again.

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The Tropical Rainforest is found mainly between the Tropic of Capricorn to the south and the Tropic of Cancer to the north. It is found here, as there is a hotter climate because there is more direct sunlight hitting the earth, as it is not as round as the top of the Earth, so the sun has a smaller area of land to heat. The main areas of tropical rainforest are shown on this map. The two red lines show the topics of cancer and Capricorn

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It rains a lot in the Rainforest because it is very hot all day. This is part of the water cycle. As the sun heats the ground, it heats the air above it. The warm air then rises, cools, and condenses, causing convectional rainfall.  Some of the rain is evaporated off the leaves or held as moisture in the leaves. Some water runs off the leaves and is absorbed into the soil. The rest runs off into the river. Only about 20% of the rain makes it backinto the river. As you can see by this climate graph, the amount of rain does vary a lot throughout the year; there is always plenty of water. The temperature does not vary much at all.

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